Arabiska Våren, hur ser det ut nu sju år senare?

Arab Spring: Where are the leaders now?

Seven years of turbulence, from Morroco’s King Mohammed VI, who preempted a change of the constitution, to Assad’s bloody suppression of dissent

March 24, 2017, 8:41 pm

Protesters chant slogans and wave revolutionary flags during a rally after Friday prayers at al-Azhar Mosque in Cairo, Egypt, December 28, 2012. (AP/Khalil Hamra)

Protesters chant slogans and wave revolutionary flags during a rally after Friday prayers at al-Azhar Mosque in Cairo, Egypt, December 28, 2012. (AP/Khalil Hamra)

 

 

CAIRO, Egypt — What happened to the leaders whose power was challenged in the so-called Arab Spring that began in late 2010?

Here is a look.

Egypt: Mubarak freed

Hosni Mubarak stepped down on February 11, 2011 after three decades in office and handed power to the army, following an 18-day revolt.

Mubarak was arrested that April, and succeeded in June 2012 by an Islamist, Mohamed Morsi, Egypt’s first freely elected president.

This file photo taken on May 18, 2008 shows then Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak speaking during an address to the World Economic Forum on the Middle East at the Sharm el-Sheikh International Congress Center. (AFP Photo/Mandel Ngan)

This file photo taken on May 18, 2008 shows then Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak speaking during an address to the World Economic Forum on the Middle East at the Sharm el-Sheikh International Congress Center. (AFP Photo/Mandel Ngan)

Morsi was in turn toppled by then army chief, now President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi after a single year in power marked by crises and political dissent.

Sentenced to life in prison in June 2012 on charges of involvement in the deaths of some 850 protesters during the uprising, Mubarak was acquitted by Egypt’s top appeals court on March 2, 2017.

Aged 88, he was released from military hospital on Friday.

Tunisia: Ben Ali flees

Month-long protests over poverty and unemployment forced Tunisian president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali and his family to flee on January 14, 2011, after just over 23 years in power, in the first of the Arab Spring uprisings.

He went into exile in Saudi Arabia and, now 80, has maintained a low profile, communicating mainly via a Lebanese lawyer.

Celebrating the fifth anniversary of the Arab Spring in Tunis, Tunisia, on January 14, 2016. (AP/Riadh Dridi)

Celebrating the fifth anniversary of the Arab Spring in Tunis, Tunisia, on January 14, 2016. (AP/Riadh Dridi)

The Tunisian courts have since convicted him of a raft of offenses in absentia, including corruption and incitement to violence against protesters during the uprising. He was sentenced to life in prison on the latter charge.

Syria: Assad survives

Syrian President Bashar Assad is still in power.

Military support from Iran, Russia and Lebanon’s Hezbollah have since 2015 turned the tables in his favor in a civil war sparked by the brutal suppression of protests against his rule which erupted in March 2011.

Screen capture of Syrian President Bashar Assad during an interview with media, February 2017. (Screen capture: R&U Videos/YouTube)

Screen capture of Syrian President Bashar Assad during an interview with media, February 2017. (Screen capture: R&U Videos/YouTube)

More than 320,000 people have been killed in the conflict and millions forced from their homes.

Rebel groups that have received backing from Turkey, the Gulf Arab states and Western governments are still fighting Assad’s forces but they have been overshadowed by jihadists of the Islamic State group and former Al-Qaeda affiliate Fateh al-Sham Front.

Libya: Gaddafi slain

Libyan strongman Muammar Gaddafi was captured and killed on October 20, 2011 after 42 years in power while trying to flee Sirte, his hometown, as NATO-backed rebels closed in. It was the climax of a revolt that began with protests in second city Benghazi that February.

The late Col. Muammar Gaddafi (photo credit: Jesse B. Awalt/Wikimedia Commons)

The late Col. Muammar Gaddafi (Jesse B. Awalt/Wikimedia Commons)

Libya has since descended into chaos, with rival parliaments and governments vying for influence and militias fighting over territory and the country’s vast oil wealth.

Yemen: Saleh allies with rebels

President Ali Abdullah Saleh stepped down in February 2012, following year-long protests and armed clashes, ending more than 33 years in power. His vice president Abedrabbo Mansour Hadi took over and was subsequently elected president.

However, Saleh retained the loyalty of some of the best equipped units in the armed forces and when Huthi Shiite rebels overran the capital Sanaa in September 2014, his loyalists did nothing to stop them.

'Freedom is made by people,' reads the graffiti on a street where protesters demanded a trial for former resident Ali Abdullah Saleh in Sanaa, Yemen (photo credit: AP/Hani Mohammed)

‘Freedom is made by people,’ reads the graffiti on a street where protesters demanded a trial for former resident Ali Abdullah Saleh in Sanaa, Yemen (photo credit: AP/Hani Mohammed)

Saleh has since formed a close alliance with the rebels and despite a two-year-old military intervention by a Saudi-led coalition they retain control of Sanaa and much of the northern highlands and Red Sea coast.

Bahrain: Royals intensify crackdown

Bahrain’s Sunni Muslim ruling family faced month-long protests led by the kingdom’s Shiite majority in 2011 calling for a constitutional monarchy and an elected prime minister.

It crushed them with deadly force after its Gulf allies Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates sent in troops.

Despite repeated calls from Western allies for compromise and reform, Bahrain’s King Hamad has since dissolved the main Shiite opposition movement and sentenced many of its leaders to lengthy prison terms.

It has also moved to ban other opposition groups.

Algeria: Bouteflika in wheelchair

In 2011, Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika kept the lid on protests, announcing reforms while consolidating his grip on power, playing on fears of a repetition of the devastating civil war that rocked the country in the 1990s.

Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika (photo credit: AP/Anis Belghoul)

Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika (photo credit: AP/Anis Belghoul)

Re-elected as president in 2014 for a fourth term, Bouteflika, now 80, is rarely seen in public and, when he is, it is from a wheelchair and speaking with difficulty, after suffering a stroke in 2013.

Morocco: King cedes some powers

In Morocco, King Mohammed VI was one of the first leaders to take stock of the Arab Spring revolts, announcing a reform of the constitution in March 2011 in the wake of a February 20 demonstration against corruption.

King Mohammed VI of Morocco at the Moroccan Ambassador to the United States' residence in Washington, DC, on November 20, 2013. (US State Department)

King Mohammed VI of Morocco at the Moroccan Ambassador to the United States’ residence in Washington, DC, on November 20, 2013. (US State Department)

Following a referendum, he succeeded in keeping his political and religious preeminence, while granting more powers to the prime minister and parliament.

Annonser

Om Peter

Benjamin Netanyahu: "We've seen this before. There was a master race. Now there's a master faith."
Det här inlägget postades i Arabiska våren/ Islamistisk vinter, Hot mot DEMOKRATI, Islamister / Jihadister, Islamska Staten. Bokmärk permalänken.

Kommentera

Fyll i dina uppgifter nedan eller klicka på en ikon för att logga in:

WordPress.com Logo

Du kommenterar med ditt WordPress.com-konto. Logga ut / Ändra )

Twitter-bild

Du kommenterar med ditt Twitter-konto. Logga ut / Ändra )

Facebook-foto

Du kommenterar med ditt Facebook-konto. Logga ut / Ändra )

Google+ photo

Du kommenterar med ditt Google+-konto. Logga ut / Ändra )

Ansluter till %s